Application of chitosan biomaterial scaffold in the treatment of infectious bone defects
Tian Yuhang, Liu Yadong, Cui Yutao, Liu He, Li Shaorong, Wang Gan, Fan Yi, Peng Chuangang, Wu Dankai
Department of Orthopedics, Second Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun 130041, Jilin Province, China
Abstract: BACKGROUND: In the process of treating bone defects, chitosan biomaterial scaffolds can be prepared to implant the defect site, which can effectively improve the biocompatibility and biodegradability, reduce the generation of side effects, and provide a new method for treating bone defects.
OBJECTIVE: To introduce the latest application progress of chitosan biomaterial scaffold and its functions, describe the application in the treatment of infectious bone defects, and discuss the current research points and future trends.
METHODS: Using “chitosan, scaffold, bone defect, bone tissue engineering” as keywords, articles were retrieved on PubMed, Web of Science, Springerlink, Medline, Wanfang, and CNKI databases from 2008 to 2020. A total of 198 articles were firstly examined and 51 articles were selected for further analysis.
RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Chitosan can be used as an antibacterial agent to treat drug-resistant bacteria. As an osteoconductive substance, chitosan can promote cell adhesion and proliferation. Chitosan can also be modified and combined with various biological materials to enhance its mechanical properties and functionality. Simultaneously, chitosan can also be used as an injectable hydrogel to fill bone defect sites in any shape. However, there are still deficiencies in intensity, and it is difficult to achieve better supporting effect while ensuring antibacterial activity. At present, most researches still focus on combining with other biological materials to enhance their mechanical properties. In addition, most of the application research of chitosan biomaterials is still in the experimental stage, and has not been truly applied in clinical practice. Improving the preparation process of chitosan biomaterials will contribute to the research and development of bone repair biomaterials with more functions. In the near future, chitosan can be combined with 3D printing technology, genetic engineering, and medical imaging technology to open up a new path for bone repair in the field of bone tissue engineering.
Key words: chitosan, bone defect, bone tissue engineering, scaffold, medical treatment, review