2022, Vol. 26 ›› Issue (22): 3535-3542
Potential of bacterial nanocellulose/polydopamine composite tubes as small-diameter artificial blood vessel
Liu Liang1, 2, 3, Hu Gaoquan1, 2, 3, Wei Zhao1, 2, 3, Chen Lin1, 2, 3, Hong Feng1, 2, 3
1College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620, China; 2Shanghai Engineering Research Center of Nano-Biomaterials and Regenerative Medicine, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620, China; 3Scientific Research Base of Bacterial Nanofiber Manufacturing and Composite Technology, China Textile Engineering Society, Shanghai 201620, China
Abstract: BACKGROUND: There is a lack of small-caliber artificial blood vessels (< 6 mm) in clinical application.
OBJECTIVE: To explore the potential of bacterial nanocellulose/polydopamine (BNC/PDA) composite tubes for small-caliber artificial blood vessels.
METHODS: Bacterial nanocellulose small-caliber artificial blood vessel was prepared through an external silicone tube reactor, and the purified cellulose tube was immersed in dopamine solutions of different mass concentrations (0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 g/L) for self polymerization reaction. After preparation of BNC/PDA composite tubes, the microstructure, infrared spectrum, density, water holding capacity, water permeability, burst and suture strength, axial mechanical properties, and blood and cell compatibility of the bacterial nanocellulose tube and BNC/PDA composite tubes were characterized.
RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: (1) The field emission scanning electron microscope showed that the inner surface of all tubes was a 3D network structure built by nanofibers, with uniform fiber distribution and compact structure. With the increase of dopamine mass concentration, the fiber diameter of artificial blood vessels increased. (2) As the mass concentration of dopamine increased, the density, burst and suture strength and axial mechanical properties of artificial blood vessels increased, and the water penetration and water holding capacity decreased. (3) The hemolysis rate and platelet adhesion test results showed that the hemolysis rate of the bacterial nanocellulose tube and the BNC/PDA composite tubes were both non-hemolytic grades. The composite tube adhered to platelets less than the bacterial nanocellulose tube. The whole blood coagulation test results showed that the composite tubes had stronger blood coagulation performance than the bacterial nanocellulose tube. (4) CCK-8 experiment results showed that compared with simple bacterial nanocellulose, the BNC/PDA-0.1 composite tubes could promote the proliferation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells; the other four composite tubes inhibited cell proliferation; and BNC/PDA-1.5 and BNC/PDA-2.0 composite tube showed obvious cytotoxicity. The results of calcein fluorescence staining showed that the cells on the surface of the simple bacterial nanocellulose, BNC/PDA-0.1, BNC/PDA-0.5, and BNC/PDA-1.0 composite tubes could continue to proliferate, among which the number of cells on the surface of the BNC/PDA-0.1 composite tubes was more than that on simple bacterial nanocellulose. (5) The results show that the BNC/PDA composite tubes have certain potential to be used in small-caliber artificial blood vessels, and it can be further grafted with active macromolecules to achieve functionalization.
Key words: biomaterials, artificial blood vessels, bacterial nanocellulose, polydopamine, blood compatibility, cell compatibility, tissue engineering