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2022, Vol. 26 ›› Issue (23): 3691-3699

Interleukin-1 alpha induces osteoclast activation and bone loss

Yang Ruijuan1, Li Yangyang1, Cai Ruiyan1, Liu Huibin1, Guo Chun1, 2   

  1. 1Henan Key Laboratory of Neural Regeneration, First Affiliated Hospital of Xinxiang Medical University, Weihui 453100, Henan Province, China; 2Department of Orthopedics, First Affiliated Hospital of Xinxiang Medical University, Weihui 453100, Henan Province, China

  • Received:2021-09-20 Accepted:2021-11-29 Online:2022-08-18 Published:2022-02-11

  • Contact: Guo Chun, MD, Professor, Henan Key Laboratory of Neural Regeneration, First Affiliated Hospital of Xinxiang Medical University, Weihui 453100, Henan Province, China; Department of Orthopedics, First Affiliated Hospital of Xinxiang Medical University, Weihui 453100, Henan Province, China

  • About author:Yang Ruijuan, Master, Henan Key Laboratory of Neural Regeneration, First Affiliated Hospital of Xinxiang Medical University, Weihui 453100, Henan Province, China

  • Supported by:

    the National Natural Science Foundation of China, No. 81672190 (to GC); the Project of Health Commission of Henan Province, No. SB201903013 (to GC); the Project of Science and Technology Department of Henan Province, No. 182102310260 (to GC); the Youth Foundation of the First Affiliated Hospital of Xinxiang Medical University, No. QN-2020-B11 (to YRJ)


Abstract: BACKGROUND: Interleukin-1 is an important pro-inflammatory cytokine that has been documented in the regulation of bone inflammation and bone remodeling. A previous study has demonstrated that interleukin-1α can induce apoptosis while inhibiting osteoblast differentiation in MC3T3-E1 cells.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role and mechanism of interleukin-1α on osteoclast activation and bone loss in mice.
METHODS: (1) Cell test: RAW264.7 cells were either treated with interleukin-1α alone or with receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) for 1 and 4 days. Cell viability was tested by cell counting kit-8 assay. The number of multinuclear osteoclasts was detected by tartrate resistant acid phosphatase assay. The mRNA and protein levels of osteoclast-specific genes and genes related to nuclear factor-κB pathway and Wnt/β-catenin pathway were tested by real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR, immunofluorescence staining or western blot. Bone marrow-derived macrophages were either treated with interleukin-1α alone or with RANKL and macrophage colony-stimulating factor for 7 days. The number of multinuclear osteoclasts was detected by tartrate resistant acid phosphatase assay. The protein levels of osteoclast-specific genes were tested by western blot. (2) Animal test: Twenty-four male C57BL/6J mice (6-8 weeks old) were assigned into two groups at random: control group   and test group. Mice were subsequently treated with interleukin-1α solution or PBS by intraperitoneal injection twice a week for 5 weeks. Bone tissues from the femurs were performed with micro-computed tomography analysis and hematoxylin-eosin staining, tartrate resistant acid phosphatase, and immunofluorescence analysis.
RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Cell test: Interleukin-1α alone significantly increased RAW264.7 cell proliferation, but stimulated cell differentiation into osteoclasts in combination with RANKL (P < 0.05). Interleukin-1α significantly increased the expression of osteoclast-related markers and the number of tartrate resistant acid phosphatase-positive multinuclear cells in RAW264.7 cells and bone marrow-derived macrophages in the existence of RANKL or RANKL+macrophage colony-stimulating factor (both P < 0.05). Interleukin-1α was found to significantly enhance the nuclear factor-κB and Wnt/beta-catenin signaling in RAW264.7 cells (P < 0.05). Blocking of nuclear factor-κB or Wnt3 signaling not only reversed the activation of nuclear factor-κB and Wnt3 signaling but also weakened the enhanced expression of osteoclast-specific genes induced by interleukin-1α in RAW264.7 cells (P < 0.05). Animal test: interleukin-1α induced bone loss in mice while also upregulating the expression of osteoclast-specific markers, RANK, TRAF6 and p65, and Wnt3 in vivo (P < 0.05). The findings indicate that interleukin-1α can induce osteoclast activation and bone loss by promoting the nuclear factor-κB and Wnt signaling pathways.
Key words: interleukin-1α, osteoclast, RAW264.7 cell, bone marrow-derived macrophage, tartrate resistant acid phosphatase, receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand, bone loss, micro-computed tomography, nuclear factor-κB signaling, Wnt/β-catenin signaling

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