Carvacrol: antibacterial activity, bone repair, and prevention and treatment in oral diseases
Zhang Zihan, Wang Wenli, Li Jinnuo, Li Yourui
Binzhou Medical University Hospital, Binzhou 256600, Shandong Province, China
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Carvacrol is a natural plant extract that acts as a substitute of antibiotics and has a good prospect because of its antibacterial activity, low drug resistance and low cytotoxicity.
OBJECTIVE: To review the antibacterial activity and clinical applications of carvacrol in the prevention and treatment of common oral diseases.
METHODS: PubMed and CNKI database were searched by computer using the keywords of “carvacrol, antibacterial, oral, osteogenesis” in English and Chinese, respectively. The retrieval period was from January 2011 to June 2021. Preliminary screening of literature was conducted through reading and analysis to exclude duplicate and low-correlation literature. Finally, 49 articles were included for result analysis.
RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Experimental results have shown that carvacrol exerts significant antibacterial effects on the pathogens and bacterial biofilms of various common oral diseases, such as dental caries, oral candidiasis, periodontitis and peri-implantitis. The combined use of carvacrol and antibiotics produces a synergistic effect, which can enhance curative effect and reduce drug resistance. Even at high concentrations, carvacrol can still maintain low cytotoxicity and good safety. In addition, carvacrol can inhibit osteoclast differentiation, help repair bone defects and reduce bone destruction, which can be used in bone tissue engineering. Considering the above biological characteristics, carvacrol can be added into antibacterial drugs, biological barrier films and mouthwashes, which can be used in the clinical treatment of oral diseases.
Key words: volatile phenolics, natural plant essential oils, carvacrol, oral, antibacterial, pathogenic bacteria, gel, osteogenesis