2023, Vol. 27 ›› Issue (12): 1961-1968
Surface treatment of dental implant materials and their antibacterial and osteoinductive ability
Wang Yuesheng1, Gao Wei2, 3, Peng Cheng1
1Department of Stomatology, Second Hospital of Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin 300211, China; 2Department of Interventional Therapy, Cancer Institute and Hospital, Tianjin Medical University, National Clinical Research Center for Cancer, Key Laboratory of Cancer Prevention and Therapy, Tianjin 300060, China; 3State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004, Hebei Province, China
Abstract: BACKGROUND: The implant material is required to show good biocompatibility, corrosion resistance, wear resistance, and excellent mechanical properties. At present, the commonly used implant materials mainly include metals and their alloys, ceramics, and high molecular polymers. Peri-implantitis caused by the growth of bacteria in the oral cavity due to the complex environment in the oral cavity, as well as the patient’s own diet and hygiene habits, is the important factor leading to the failure of the implant. More and more researchers are exploring the surface treatment and antibacterial coatings methods of the implant surface, providing osteoinductive and antibacterial properties.
OBJECTIVE: To summarize the three aspects of implant materials, surface treatment technology and surface coating types for research and clinical reference.
METHODS: Online search of Web of Science, CNKI, and Wanfang databases was performed to retrieve studies regarding dental implant in the biological field published between March 2011 and August 2021. The English search terms were “dental implant, dental implants materials, dental implant surface treatment, antibacterial activity”. The Chinese search terms were “surface treatment, surface coating, dental implants materials, dental implant osseointegration, peri-implantitis, antibacterial activity”. Totally 1 500 articles were retrieved. Among them, 67 articles were included.
RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Dental implants have been widely used and developed in the clinic. As far as the implant materials are concerned, pure titanium implants still need to be improved due to their high elastic modulus and inflammation caused by them. The following developed titanium alloys also have the problem of stimulating bone growth. Tantalum and tantalum-based alloys are expensive and mostly appear in the form of coatings, which limits their clinical application. The long-term effect of ceramic implants such as zirconia still needs further observation and verification, which are brittle and easy to break. The elastic modulus of polymer materials is close to that of bone tissue, but its strength and osteogenic activity still need to be further studied. In addition, the peri-implant inflammation caused by the complex environment in the oral cavity can also lead to implant failure. Therefore, it is very necessary to carry out surface treatment and coating techniques on the surface of dental implants to promote bone formation, osseointegration and anti-infection. The application of their combination may become a major direction in future research.
Key words: dental implant, implant material, surface treatment technology, surface coating method, combined application, review