Effect of short-foot training on foot and ankle function in patients with flat feet: Meta-analysis and systematic review
Feng Liang1, Gong Shuhui2, Huo Hongfeng1, 3
1School of Physical Education, Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang 050024, Hebei Province, China; 2People’s Hospital of Hebei Province, Shijiazhuang 050024, Hebei Province, China; 3Hebei Provincial Key Laboratory of Human Movement Bioinformatics Measurement, Shijiazhuang 050024, Hebei Province, China
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To perform a Meta-analysis to comprehensively and quantitatively evaluate the effects of short foot training on foot and ankle function in patients with flat feet, and to provide a theoretical basis for more effective training in patients with flat feet.
METHODS: Chinese and foreign literature databases such as Web of Science, The Cochrane Library, PubMed, Embase, CNKI database, VIP database, and China Biomedical Literature Database were searched. The search time was from database inception to January 31, 2022. Chinese database search terms and search formula: (flatfoot OR valgus foot OR stiff foot) AND (short foot training OR physical therapy). English database search terms and search formula: (flatfoot OR talipes valgus OR talipes calcaneovalgus) AND (short foot exercises OR physical therapy OR neurophysiotherapy). The Cochrane risk of bias assessment tool was selected to evaluate the quality of the included literature, and all included articles were analyzed for outcome indicators (navicular drop and foot posture index) using Revman 5.4 and Stata 12.0 software.
RESULTS: A total of 12 papers with 443 subjects were included. Five were moderate risk of bias and seven were low risk of bias literature. Short-foot training could reduce navicular drop [standardized mean difference (SMD)=-0.59, P < 0.05). Subject age (regression coefficient: -1.563 9, P=0.004), body mass index (regression coefficient: -1.563 9, P=0.023) and intervention duration (regression coefficient: -1.445 6, P=0.042) influenced the overall effect of the included literature. Short foot training showed insignificant effects on foot posture index (SMD=-0.26, P > 0.05).
CONCLUSION: Short-foot training can effectively reduce navicular drop in patients with flat foot but has no clear effects on foot posture index. Age, body mass index, and intervention time are the factors that influence the effectiveness of short-foot training interventions and are the factors that need to be considered when conducting relevant studies and organizing rehabilitation training for patients with flat feet. Short-foot training is recommended as a training tool for patients with flat feet.
Key words: short-foot training, flat foot, Meta-analysis, navicular drop, foot posture index