Schwann cell-derived exosomes promote the repair and regeneration of injured peripheral nerves
Yuan Bo1, 2, Xie Lide1, Fu Xiumei1, 3
1Chengde Medical University, Chengde 067000, Hebei Province, China; 2Chengde Nursing Vocational College, Chengde 067000, Hebei Province, China; 3Hebei Key Laboratory of Nerve Injury and Repair, Chengde 067000, Hebei Province, China
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Peripheral nerve injury is a common clinical trauma. At present, the end-to-end anastomosis was commonly used in the treatment of short-distance nerve injury, whereas graft bridging was required in the long-distance nerve injury. Schwann cell-derived exosomes could elevate neuronal survival, improve the regeneration microenvironment, promote axonal regeneration, and have a good application prospect in the field of peripheral nerve injury and repair.
OBJECTIVE: To review the research progress of Schwann cell-derived exosomes in repair and regeneration after peripheral nerve injury.
METHODS: The relevant articles published from 2000 to 2022 were searched from PubMed, Wanfang, and CNKI databases by computer. The Chinese and English search terms were “Schwann cell, exosomes, vesicles, peripheral nerve, sciatic nerve”. The preliminary searched articles were screened according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, and a total of 52 articles were included for in-depth analysis.
RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: (1) The proliferation and migration of Schwann cells play an important role in the repair and regeneration after peripheral nerve injury. Schwann cells could promote the regeneration and repair of injured peripheral nerves through a variety of signal transduction pathways. (2) Exosomes could mediate intercellular communication by transferring bioactive substances to maintain normal physiological processes, which had a great potential in the treatment of peripheral nervous system damage. (3) Schwann cell-derived exosomes played a role in promoting regeneration and repair of peripheral nerve injury by participating in axon regeneration and growth regulation so as to provide a new therapeutic strategy for peripheral nerve injury.
Key words: exosome, Schwann cell, peripheral nerve, axon regeneration, regenerative and repair, genetic engineering, tissue engineering, signaling pathway