Differences in human dynamic stability during walking under different cognitive loads
Liu Xinyue1, Xing Xinyang2, Huo Hongfeng1, 3
1College of Physical Education, Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang 050024, Hebei Province, China; 2Department of Physical Education, Hebei University of Physical Education, Shijiazhuang 050041, Hebei Province, China; 3Hebei Provincial Key Laboratory of Human Motion Bioinformation Assessment, Shijiazhuang 050024, Hebei Province, China
Abstract: BACKGROUND: Maintaining postural stability during walking is critical for the prevention of falls, and how dynamic stability alters during cognitive dual-task walking remains controversial.
OBJECTIVE: To explore the influence of cognitive load factors on posture control performance of dual-task research paradigm by comparing the differences of dynamic stability during walking under four different cognitive loads, and to provide theoretical basis for dynamic stability rehabilitation training.
METHODS: The Motion three-dimensional motion capture system was used to collect the kinematic data of 16 male college students during walking under different cognitive loads (zero load, one load, double load and triple load), and the dynamic stability margin was calculated indirectly through the kinematic data. Among them, cognitive single-task walking refers to walking + zero times cognitive load; cognitive dual-task walking refers to walking + one, two, and three times cognitive load. Univariate repeated measure analysis of variance was used to compare the differences of gait parameters and dynamic stability under different cognitive loads.
RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: (1) Compared with zero load, walking speed and dynamic stability margin of other cognitive loads were decreased (P < 0.05). (2) Walking speed and step length of double cognitive load were lower than those of one cognitive load (P < 0.05). The step length of double cognitive load was lower than that of zero cognitive load (P < 0.05). (3) Step width parameters had no statistical significance when walking under different cognitive loads (P > 0.05). (4) It is indicated that with the increase of cognitive load, young adults responded to the intervention of cognitive task mainly by decreasing stride speed and stride length and changing gait pattern. During dual-task walking, the intervention of cognitive task did not affect step width parameters, and it is not recommended to use step width parameters as an effective indicator to evaluate the performance of dual-task posture control when evaluating the effectiveness of dual-task rehabilitation training program. When the cognitive load did not exceed the total attention resources of the human body, the intervention of cognitive task increased the dynamic stability of the left and right directions during walking. For young people, different cognitive loads have little influence on postural control, and the setting of cognitive load can be appropriately reduced when implementing dual-task rehabilitation intervention.
Key words: cognitive load, double tasks, walking, stability, rehabilitation training